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By Maribel Fierro

Абд ар-Рахман III — эмир с 912 года, халиф с 929 года из династии кордовских Омейядов. Восстановил полураспавшийся при его предшественниках Кордовский эмират. В 931 году взял Сеуту, в 932 году — Толедо. С 955 года заставил королей Леона и Наварры платить дань. Отвоевал у Фатимидов часть Магриба (Северная Африка). Имел баскские корни (басками были его мать и мать отца).Абдаррахман заботился о развитии культуры и об усилении политической мощи, покровительствуя развитию сельского хозяйства, ремесла, торговли, литературы и просвещения. Упорядочил финансы, поощрял строительство. При нем были созданы крупные памятники искусства в столице и в других городах. Кордова стала одним из самых прекрасных городов мира; в этом городе было около полумиллиона жителей. Правление Абдаррахмана III — апогей расцвета аль-Андалуса и кордовских Омейядов.

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048 14/12/2004 1:15 PM Page 19 AL-ANDALUS BEFORE THE SECOND UMAYYAD CALIPHATE 19 and thus putting an end to the Arab supremacy that had characterized the Umayyad period. Somewhat paradoxically, this went together with the promotion – and also invention – of Arabic culture as a means to counteract non-Arab, especially Persian, claims to cultural superiority. The ‘Abbasids’ seizure of power was accompanied by a bloody massacre of the Umayyad family. Very few survived. The story of how he managed to escape ‘Abbasid persecution would make an exciting script for a Hollywood movie.

In sum, the Muwallads rebelled for their right to share power and compete for economic and social rewards on equal terms with the Arabs and, in the case of converts, with the “old” Muslims. Where the converts first succeeded in fully assimilating themselves was in the religious offices. 048 14/12/2004 1:17 PM Page 33 THE COLLAPSE OF UMAYYAD POWER AND ITS RECOVERY 33 From the reign of the emir Muhammad (r. 852–86) to that of ‘Abd Allah (r. 888–912) (the latter being ‘Abd al-Rahman III’s grandfather), Toledo, Zaragoza, and Badajoz in the frontier regions were most of the time independent from Umayyad control.

048 14/12/2004 1:17 PM Page 33 THE COLLAPSE OF UMAYYAD POWER AND ITS RECOVERY 33 From the reign of the emir Muhammad (r. 852–86) to that of ‘Abd Allah (r. 888–912) (the latter being ‘Abd al-Rahman III’s grandfather), Toledo, Zaragoza, and Badajoz in the frontier regions were most of the time independent from Umayyad control. For example,in the Upper March, the emir Muhammad installed the Arab Tujibi family in order to counteract the influence of the Banu Qasi, a family of local converts whom we have encountered already: they had ties with the Christian kings of the area,and managed to rule independently for almost a century.

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