By Kohki Takatoh
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Additional resources for Alignment technologies and applications of liquid crystal devices
Studied the surface structure by using an X-ray scattering technique . For surface structure measurements, they used grazing-incidence X-ray scattering (GIXS), which is based on a critical angle that exists because the refractive index of the X-rays is lower than one. The X-rays which interact with the surface at the critical angle become evanescent radiation and pass through a surface depth less than 5 nm. The Rubbing Technologies: Mechanisms and Applications Without rubbing 19 α = 0° θ = 0° Before injection of LC After injection of LC (a) Rubbing direction Rubbed surface Main chain Before injection of LC LC α θ After injection of LC (b) Fig.
The relationship between the LC pretilt angle and the surface structure of BPDA-Cn and PMDA-Cn polyimide was studied by using the NEXAFS technique . The BPDA type polyimide shows an odd^even effect. However, PMDA type polyimide does not show such an odd^even effect. The chain length dependence of the LC pretilt angle for BPDA and PMDA types of polyimide is shown in Fig. 13. The conformation of PMDA-C8 is determined as a cis-transoid type. As for PMDA-C7, a trans-cisoid type conformation of the polymer chain is a possible structure on the substrate surface.
32 Masaki Hasegawa (a) Fibre of rubbing material Polymer film (b) Principle axis of stress (c) (d) Fig. 25 (a) Cross sectional view of a polymer film in contact with a moving fibre of buffing material. (b) Magnified view of the film under shearing forces, showing the principle axes of stress. (c) Effect of large shear deformation, similar to that which would be produced by simple elongation parallel to the substrate. (d) Modified version of large shear deformation, taking into account a possible proximity effect exerted by the substrate surface on the polymer.