Download Alternative Fuels: The Future of Hydrogen, Third Edition by Michael Frank Hordeski PDF

By Michael Frank Hordeski

Revised and up to date, Alternative Fuels addresses the various elements affecting our power use, together with the supply and desirability of varied fuels—especially using hydrogen. This new version covers new hydrogen advancements in know-how, oil provides and new drilling suggestions, most modern info on hydrogen road initiatives, breakthroughs in gasoline mobile know-how and extremely low emissions in transportation, the most recent data on rising oil markets, strength reserves, and carbon dioxide raises.

Also incorporated is fabric on power coverage, gas provide tendencies, replacement situations, strength usage, sustainable strength, expense research, gas escalation, strength and improvement, regulatory concerns, obstacles to implementation, conversion platforms, garage structures, thermodynamic potency, gas chain potency, life-cycle potency, know-how matters extracting, refining, air emission concerns, defense, traditional fuel hydrogen gasoline, methanol, ethanol, steam reforming and gas cells.

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Extra info for Alternative Fuels: The Future of Hydrogen, Third Edition

Example text

Large pipes are placed above the ovens, where the gas is subject to a shower of cold ammoniacal water. At this time it precipitates some of its tar. The primary and secondary condensers are used to get out the rest of the tar. Then the water from scrubbers absorbs the ammonia and the oils are distilled. Iron oxide purifiers remove toxic products such as sulphuretted hydrogen and hydrocyanic acid. The distillation of one ton of soft coal yields about 1,500 lbs of coke, 100 lbs of tar (for road construction and waterproofing), 10 lbs of benzol (which may be distilled to provide gasoline and napthalene), 7 lbs of ammonia (for the manufacture of fertilizer), and 12,000 cubic feet of gas for heating.

The Oil Economy 45 In the early days of drilling, wells flowed freely until pressures were reduced. Today, gushers are rare. The oil flow is controlled by a choke valve at the top of the well, and the gas and water press evenly on the oil to produce a flow from the sides of the pool to the well. Oil movement depends on three different types of forces, or drives. Oil always contains some dissolved gas. Since it is compressed, it will try to expand and force the oil with it in the direction of the pressure release, toward the well hole.

They burn a mixture of rich gas from the ovens and poor gas from gas generators. Each oven is fed with about 15 tons of pulverized coal by an automatic coal car. The doors are hermetically sealed, and distillation begins. The coal becomes pasty and, starting at the walls and proceeding to the center, it cakes into white-hot coke. The firing operation may last 1224 hours, depending on the coal used and the products to be obtained. When distillation is complete, one door of the oven is opened, and the coke bar is pushed out and quenched.

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