By J. Kennedy M.A. (auth.)
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Extra resources for Asian Nationalism in the Twentieth Century
Increasingly, the portraits and the writings and speeches of Mao himself became the hall-marks of the new orthodoxy of national conformity and the build-up of the personality cult of Mao stood in marked contrast to the contemporary official denunciation of this type Japan, China, the Indian Subcontinent 33 of practice in the Soviet Union. By 1962 Mao was moving towards still more radical campaigns against what he saw as encroaching bourgeois and other non-revolutionary tendencies in China; it remained to be seen how far he could carry both the Party and the army along with him.
The Donoughmore Commission of 1927-8 was Ceylon's counterpart of the Simon Commission for India, and the resulting Donoughmore Constitution of 1931 provided a useful training ground for future leaders. Naturally, it fell short of nationalist aims and it also offended minorities who saw more power going to the majority people, the Sinhalese, and, among the Sinhalese, to those of the Goyigama caste. Among the minorities were Ceylon Tamils, descended from immigrants from south India, Indian Tamils of more recent arrival and Muslims of Indian and other racial communities.
Although they possessed apparent advantages in the earlier phases, Chiang Kai-shek's forces were gradually defeated or they went over to the enemy until, by 1950, the remnants withdrew with the Generalissimo to make a government centre and stronghold on the island of Formosa (Taiwan). Meanwhile, on 1 October 1949, the People's Republic of China was proclaimed with Mao Tsetung as Chairman and Chou En-lai as Minister of Foreign Affairs. Asian Nationalism in the Twentieth Century The achievement of a new China, strong and independent, was to be under communist leadership but this did not rule out the normal patterns of nationalism.