Download Biodiversity of the Southern Ocean by David, Bruno; Saucède, Thomas PDF

By David, Bruno; Saucède, Thomas

The Southern Ocean surrounding the Antarctic continent is gigantic, particularly, its historical past, its isolation, and weather, making it a different "laboratory case" for experimental evolution, model and ecology. Its evolutionary heritage of edition supply a wealth of data at the functioning of the biosphere and its power.

The Southern Ocean is the results of a background of approximately forty million years marked by way of the hole of the Straits south of Australia and South the US and excessive cooling. The violence of its climate, its very low temperatures, the formation of massive ice-covered parts, as its isolation makes the Southern Ocean an international aside.

This ebook discusses the implications for the evolution, ecology and biodiversity of the area, together with endemism, slowed metabolism, sturdiness, gigantism, and its larval levels; good points which make this large ocean a "natural laboratory" for exploring the ecological adaptive approaches, scalable to paintings in severe environmental stipulations. this present day, biodiversity of the Southern Ocean is dealing with international switch, really in local warming and acidification of water our bodies. not able emigrate additional south, how will she cope, if any, to viewers from the North?

  • Designed for curious readers to find the mammoth ocean surrounding the main remoted and so much inhospitable continent at the planet.
  • Describes the Southern Ocean dealing with biodiversification because of international change
  • Authored by means of scientists with event of expeditions to the Southern Ocean

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Extra resources for Biodiversity of the Southern Ocean

Example text

2. Map of the Southern Ocean representing the main oceanic fronts. 3. 1. 9°C, the freezing point for a salt content of 35 grams per liter, and not at 0°C, as is the case for freshwater. When the sea freezes, sea ice is formed. In contrast with the Arctic Ocean, where sea ice remains present throughout the year (although the amount of ice has decreased considerably over the past decade), the ice formed in winter on the Southern Ocean melts almost completely in summer, a phenomenon unrelated to global warming.

The shallowness of the channel prevented any exchange between Pacific and Atlantic waters, preventing the development of a circumpolar current [LIV 05]. 2). From then onward, cold surface currents were able to flow around the Antarctic continent [EXO 04]. With the opening of the Drake Passage in the west and the Tasman Gateway in the east, circumpolar circulation became possible and a proto-Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) developed. Antarctica and its biodiversity became geographically isolated from other continents.

Around 80 million years ago, in the middle of the Late Cretaceous, Antarctica, Australia and New Zealand had completely separated from the other continents. New Zealand, made up of several different parts, moved away from Antarctica at the end of the Cretaceous, between 80 and 65 million years ago. In the west, at the end of the Cretaceous Period, tectonic movements in Africa, South America and Antarctica resulted in the convergence of the Antarctic Peninsula and Patagonia. An ephemeral (at the geological timescale) land bridge, known as the Weddellian Isthmus, formed between the two continents.

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