By Junji Haruyama
Superconductors (SCs) are appealing fabrics in all respects for any neighborhood. they supply a deep perception into the actual houses of the condensed issues and still have worthwhile functions as ultra-low-power-dissipation structures which could support get to the bottom of the current power difficulties. particularly, the new development of carbon-based new superconductors (CNSCs) is important. prior to 2004, the superconducting transition temperature (Tc) of carbon-based SCs used to be lower than 1 ok, other than in fullerene clusters. despite the fact that, in 2004, a Russian workforce came across that diamond hugely doped with boron will be an SC at Tc = four ok. the subsequent yr, a gaggle from Cambridge discovered that calcium-intercalated graphite might be an SC with Tc = 11.5 okay. In 2006 and 2008, the editor’s staff from Japan additionally found that carbon nanotubes will be SCs at Tc = 12 okay. on account that then, learn on CNSCs has elevated notably.
A small mass of carbon can produce excessive phonon frequency and excessive Debye temperature. Combining those with different distinctive homes of CNSCs (such as one-dimensional digital states) is extremely anticipated to open doorways to high-Tc superconductivity like these of CuO2- and Fe-based SCs, which have been the one SCs to teach Tc > forty okay some time past. CNSCs, equivalent to diamond, graphite, carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, and others, are a truly beautiful box of analysis, and this ebook is the 1st to explain their uncomplicated physics and the new advances towards excessive Tc during this field.
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Extra info for Carbon-based Superconductors: Towards High-Tc Superconductivity
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Ltd. indd 37 10/24/2014 4:36:05 PM 38 The Search for Superconductivity at van Hove Singularities properties. Here, we discuss samples made of isolated single-walled carbon nanotubes to relate the occurrence of superconductivity to their density of states. We measure anomalous transport features indicating that nanotubes may become superconducting when the gate voltage shifts the Fermi energy into van Hove singularities of the electronic density of states. In this scenario, the transport features are caused by proximity effect at the interface between the superconducting nanotube and the normal electrode, and the superconducting properties can be tuned by chemical doping or by applying an electric field.
8. 8 and variation of conductance due to Fabry–Pérot resonances are quite small. indd 46 10/24/2014 4:36:06 PM Carbon Nanotubes with Normal Electrodes 47 shows a dip at zero bias, and this zero-bias conductance dip decreases when the temperature is lowered, down to the lowest temperatures we can measure in our experiment. 8 only occurs in the narrow range of gate voltage indicated above. Moreover, it is clear from Fig. 8 that the zero-bias conductance peak cannot be explained by the presence of the superconducting electrodes because it persists well above the critical temperature of Nb.