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By Saud M Al-Fattah; Ian Duncan; et al

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4 Copenhagen and Cancun Several meetings were held to continue the climate negotiations after Kyoto. One of the more important was held at Copenhagen, Denmark, in the winter of 2009. At the time, it seemed to many observers that global leaders had arrived there with a mandate to unite the world under a binding agreement to reduce emissions. It is worthwhile comparing where countries stood, before the meeting in Copenhagen, in terms of satisfying the non-binding commitments made in Rio in 1992. According to 2009 emissions figures from the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (NEAA), global emissions have increased by nearly 40% since 1990.

Using their accounting method, the authors are able to trace the movement of CO2 across the globe over regional and international transport systems. 11 presents a breakdown of the emissions from trade between the largest net importers and exporters of CO2 in the global marketplace. Together, these two figures show that many Annex I members are exporting a large portion of their emissions to non-Annex I countries but continue to consume the finished goods. 12 shows how the new method alters GHG-production responsibility.

Trade imbalance has become an important topic internationally. Countries with trade deficits are demanding regulation, while those with surpluses decry these complaints as anti-free market [26]. What is true is that domestic policy makers in Annex I countries want to propose legislation that would control domestic emissions by increasing efficiency, re-examining fuel supplies, and rebuilding energy-production infrastructures. Many of the business leaders they represent find themselves increasingly compelled to fight such measures or to outsource production to non-Annex I countries to avoid increased operating costs [23].

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