By Ellen M Markman
During this landmark paintings on early conceptual and lexical improvement, Ellen Markman explores the attention-grabbing challenge of the way kids be successful on the job of inducing techniques. subsidized by means of broad experimental effects, she demanding situations the basic assumptions of conventional theories of language acquisition and proposes set of constraints or rules of induction permits teenagers to successfully combine wisdom and to urge information regarding new examples of typical categories.Ellen M. Markman is Professor of Psychology at Stanford college.
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Extra info for Categorization and Naming in Children: Problems of Induction
See this dax? Can you say dax? " Acquisition of Category Terms 31 As usual, when children in the no word condition had to choose between another member of the same superordina te category and a thematically related object, they often chose the thematic relation . They selected the other category member a mean of only 25% of the time . This was less often than would be expected by chance. When the target picture was labeled with an unfamiliar word , children were much more likely than children hearing no label to select categorically.
Tversky and Hemenway (1984) argue, following Grice's (1975) cooperative principles of communication , that subjects attempt to list features that would be infor - mative given ,the implicit contrast sets that they are using . When subjects are asked to list features for I'robinll and Ilsparrow, 1I thenl they would not list the property " has feathersll because it fails to distinguish between these two kinds of birds . Murphy and Medin (1985) argue that attribute listings are constrained by lay theories that the categories are involved in .
Brown (1957) found that 3- to 5- year-old children interpreted an unfamiliar count noun (" a dax" ) as referring to a new concrete object, whereas they interpreted an un familiar mass noun (" some dax" ) as referring to a novel undifferen tiated mass. In a study by Katz, Baker, and Macnamara (1974), children as young as 11/2 years old interpreted an unfamiliar proper noun (" Dax" ) as referring to an individual . At the same time these young children understood an unfamiliar count noun (" a dax " ) as referring to a category of similar objects.