By John H. Maurer
Earlier than Michael I. Handel died his colleagues and scholars compiled this choice of essays that have been written for a convention on process held in the course of 2001. The papers tackle Churchill's perspectives and concepts on struggle, approach and realpolitik.
By E.J. Dijksterhuis
The works of Simon Stevin are best for the background of technology, simply because they've got this type of huge scope and replicate so in actual fact the advance of medical wisdom round 1600 in principal Europe. the new publi cation of his vital Works, with an English translation, has back attracted cognizance to his attention-grabbing character. The publication on Stevin by means of Professor E. J. Dijksterhuis, initially released within the Dutch language, is a superb creation to the lifestyles and works of this awesome Netherlander. Dijksterhuis ready a just a little condensed English version, tailored to the international reader. due to his premature loss of life, e-book needed to be deferred until eventually the undersigned have been in a position to adopt the editorial paintings. The Royal Netherlands Academy of Sciences, Amsterdam, allowed a supply, by which a linguistic revision of the textual content used to be made attainable. we're very thankful to overlook C. Dikshoorn for the care with which she conducted this activity and ready the textual content for the clicking. a couple of supplementary notes were further, for which we're individually dependable and which were marked with our initials (R.H. or M.M.). Messrs Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, who released the unique Dutch variation, have kindly agreed to carry out additionally the English model and feature given all their consciousness to this e-book. R. HOOYKAAS M. G. J. MINNAERT creation glossy technological know-how used to be born within the interval starting with Copernicus's paintings De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium (l543) and finishing with Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687).
By James H. Read
Does each raise within the strength of presidency entail a lack of liberty for the folks? James H. learn examines how 4 key Founders--James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, James Wilson, and Thomas Jefferson--wrestled with this query in the course of the first twenty years of the yankee Republic.
Power as opposed to Liberty reconstructs a four-way conversation--sometimes respectful, occasionally shrill--that touched at the most vital matters dealing with the recent country: the structure, the invoice of Rights, federal authority as opposed to states' rights, freedom of the clicking, the debatable financial institution of the U.S., the relation among nationalism and democracy, and the elusive which means of "the consent of the governed."
Each of the lads whose proposal learn considers differed on those key questions. Jefferson believed that each bring up within the strength of presidency got here on the cost of liberty: full of life governments, he insisted, are consistently oppressive. Madison believed that this view was once too uncomplicated, that liberty will be threatened both through an excessive amount of or too little governmental energy. Hamilton and Wilson likewise rejected the Jeffersonian view of strength and liberty yet disagreed with Madison and with each one other.
The query of the way to reconcile vigorous executive with the freedom of electorate is as well timed at the present time because it was once within the first many years of the Republic. It pervades our political discourse and colours our readings of occasions from the war of words at Waco to the Oklahoma urban bombing to Congressional debate over tips to spend the govt surplus. whereas the rhetoric of either significant political events turns out to posit an instantaneous courting among the scale of our executive and the scope of our political freedoms, the debates of Madison, Hamilton, Wilson, and Jefferson confound such easy dichotomies. As learn concludes, the relation among strength and liberty is inherently complex.
By Peter J. Ucko
Concept in Archaeology tackles vital questions about the variety in archaeological concept and perform which face the self-discipline within the Nineties. what's the courting among conception and perform? How does `World' archaeological conception range from `European'? Can one be an excellent practitioner with no theory?
This designated publication brings jointly members from many various international locations and continents to supply the 1st actually worldwide point of view on archaeological thought. They learn the character of fabric tradition reports and consider difficulties of ethnicity, regionalism, and nationality. they give thought to, too, one other primary of archaeological inquiry: can our examine be `objective', or needs to `the prior' continuously be a relativistic building?
By Joseph Almog
Decartes' maxim Cogito, Ergo Sum (from his Meditations) might be the main well-known philosophical expression ever coined. Joseph Almog is a Descartes analyst whose final booklet WHAT AM I? desirous about the second one half this expression, Sum--who is the "I" who's existing-and-thinking and the way does this entity by some means comprise either physique and brain? This quantity appears on the first 1/2 the proposition--cogito. Almog calls this the "thinking man's paradox": how can there be, within the the flora and fauna and as half and parcel of it, a creature that... thinks? Descartes' proposition pronounces that any such truth obtains and he continues that it truly is self-evident; yet as Almog issues out, from the perspective of Descartes' personal skepticism, it really is faraway from noticeable that there can be a thinking-man. How can it's considering human be either a part of the flora and fauna and but by some means special and break free it? How did "thinking" come up in an differently "thoughtless" universe and what does it suggest for beings like us to be thinkers? Almog is going again to the Meditations, and utilizing Descartes' personal aposteriori cognitive methodology--his naturalistic, medical, method of the learn of man--tries to respond to the query.
By Robert E. Krebs
The center a long time and the Renaissance have been a interval of medical and literary reawakening. clinical improvement and a renewed curiosity in classical technological know-how resulted in new discoveries, innovations, and applied sciences. among 500 and 1600 A.D., clinical explorers rediscovered historic Greek and japanese wisdom, which resulted in an eruption of unpolluted principles. This reference paintings describes greater than seventy five experiments, innovations, and discoveries of the interval, in addition to the scientists, physicians, and students accountable for them. members corresponding to Leonardo da Vinci, Marco Polo, and Galileo are integrated, besides entries on reconstructive surgical procedure, Stonehenge, eyeglasses, the microscope, and the invention of smallpox.
Part of a special sequence that levels from precedent days to the twentieth century, this exploration of medical developments throughout the center a long time and the Renaissance might be helpful to highschool and school scholars, lecturers, and basic readers looking information regarding major advances in medical historical past.
By Philip Norton
Strain teams are primary to pluralist societies. yet what's the courting among these teams and parliaments? This paintings explores the hyperlinks among parliaments and strain teams, assessing the level and impression of the touch that happens. Is strain staff task important to parliament? And what are the consequences for the political procedure?
By Mark Walker
Does technological know-how paintings top in a democracy? have been 'Soviet' or 'Nazi' technology essentially diversified from technology within the united states? those questions were passionately debated within the fresh earlier. specific advancements in technological know-how happened below specific political regimes, yet they might or won't were without delay made up our minds through them.
Science and Ideology brings jointly a couple of comparative case reports to ascertain the connection among technology and the dominant ideology of a kingdom. Cybernetics within the united states is in comparison to France and the Soviet Union. Postwar Allied technological know-how coverage in occupied Germany is juxtaposed to that during Japan. The essays are narrowly focussed, but hide quite a lot of nations and ideologies. the gathering offers a special comparative historical past of medical regulations and practices within the twentieth century.
By Rebekah Higgitt, Richard Dunn, Peter Jones
This ebook explores the advance of navigation within the eighteenth and 19th centuries. It examines the position of fellows of technology, seamen and practitioners throughout Europe, and the realities of navigational perform, displaying that previous and new tools have been complementary no longer unique, their use depending on many competing components.
By Andrew Levine
Each institution of proposal within the social sciences appeals, in a single manner or one other, to the assumption of cause. the yank Ideology explicates and criticizes notions of cause in society: potency (as the time period is utilized in economics and similar coverage discussions) and the concept that of 'the moderate' (employed within the pressure of liberal political philosophy inaugurated via John Rawls). regardless of their cogency and huge attraction, those notions these days underwrite an orientation in the direction of public coverage and political lifestyles that's either insufficient and useful to elite pursuits; an orientation that constitutes a special 'American Ideology.' To make this example, Levine strains the background of the concept that of potency, from Hobbes, in the course of the utilitarian culture, to modern financial and philosophical paradigms, and examines the strengths and weaknesses of the democratic idea implicit in John Rawls's pioneering paintings on justice and political legitimacy. the result's a serious, yet sympathetic 'immanent critique' of the yankee Ideology, interested in the clients for its reconstruction.