By Henk Blezer
Anywhere Buddhism spreads, it additionally sparks neighborhood id discourses that body the neighborhood in Buddhist discourse. Buddhism and Nativism deals a comparative research of localising responses to Buddhism in numerous Buddhist environments in Japan, Korea, Tibet, India and Bali.
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Extra info for Challenging Paradigms: Buddhism and Nativism: Framing Identity Discourse in Buddhist Environments
It is one of those words to which different people respond in quite opposite ways: they either like it or hate it. In 1868, Japan cast aside the old samurai regime and took the steps necessary to become a modern nation-state. The greatest challenge for the new nation was to protect its independence under the increasing pressure brought by the advance of American and European powers into Asia. However, with the success of modernisation the danger of colonisation disappeared, and Japan itself began an aggressive invasion of surrounding Asian countries.
As already mentioned above, the time during which the buddhas manifested themselves in this world as kami was mappō, and in spatial terms, they manifested themselves in the peripheral lands of hendo in order to save the miserable Japanese who lived there. The basis for this claim was an apocryphal passage in the Hikekyō (Karu āpu arīka-sūtra), where Śākyamuni asserts that “after I die, I will appear in the evil world as a great kami (daimyōjin) and widely save sentient beings” (Imahori 1990). In this passage, frequently referred to in the Middle Ages, it is preached that Śākyamuni will appear in the form of a kami to save all creatures in the final days of the Dharma.
Myoch’ŏng, whose ideas are known only through the writings of his arch-enemy Kim Pushik, weighed in on the debate by presenting an unusually Koryŏ-centric view: that Koryŏ’s ruler should adopt the title of “Son of Heaven” (that is, reject tributary status), that the capital should be moved to the geomantically superior Western Capital (P’yŏngyang), and that Koryŏ should conquer the Jin and thus recover the glory of its ancient predecessors. Myoch’ŏng soon found himself caught up in an unsuccessful rebellion, and for all practical reasons his nativism died with him.