Download Chemical Sensing with Solid State Devices by Marc J. Madou PDF

By Marc J. Madou

This e-book is a lucid presentation for chemists, electric engineers, floor scientists, and solid-state physicists, of the basics underlying the development of easy and small chemical sensors. the 1st a part of the publication is a assessment of the theoretical historical past in reliable kingdom physics, chemistry and electronics. Semiconductor and good electrolyte bulk types are reviewed in addition to solid/gas and Read more...

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8)). The same model can be used for the second and third types of configura­ tions, but the model needs to be refined in order to emphasize the importance of the electrode-electrolyte interfacial potential and boundary 18 16 layers. In what 17follows we are basing our discussion mainly on15 work by Wagner (1933), Steel and Shaw, Weppner and Kleitz et al. 1 2 Classical Solid Electrolyte Membrane Model Consider a cell consisting of a solid electrolyte separating a reference compartment, containing a known amount of a gas or an ion, and a test compartment, containing an unknown amount of the same species.

On the basis of the first and second laws of thermodynamics, we can write that AG{ must equal ΔΗ{ΤΔΞ{, where ΔΗ{ is the enthalpy and ΔΞ1 the entropy for migration, or, in other words, the differences between enthalpy and entropy of acti­ vated state i and state A in Fig. 8. In this specific case the enthalpy change ΔΗ{ is also called the activation energy, symbolized here as ΔΕΐη (see Fig. 8). Substituting ΔΕΐη - ΤΔΞ{ into Eq. 34) and then substitut­ ing the resulting expression for Dx (Eq. 31)) into Eq.

The electrode kinetics on triple points are poorly understood at this stage, and the suggested pathway in Fig. 9b is only one of many possibilities. We will now derive the expression for the measured voltage across a solid electrolyte contacted on opposite sides by the same chemical species but with a different concentration (different chemical potential). In the presence of both an electrical field and a carrier concentration gradient, the steady-state carrier current density (flux), as we saw before in Eq.

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