By C. W. Fabjan, H. Schopper (auth.), C. W. Fabjan, H. Schopper (eds.)

Competent specialists supply a precis of the large development completed within the improvement of latest detection equipment of charged and impartial debris, and photons. those achievements have been initiated through the appearance of recent particle colliders, e.g., the LHC at CERN, but additionally by means of non-accelerator experiments. half 1 of Subvolume B stories the interplay of particle radiation with topic, and describes particle detectors, like, e.g., scintillation, gaseous, sturdy kingdom, time-of-flight, Cerenkov, transition radiation, and neutrino detectors. Calorimetry and nuclear emulsions are regarded as good. eventually, sign processing for particle detectors, info remedy and research equipment (including detector simulation, high-level info choice, development attractiveness, disbursed computing, and statistical matters) are addressed.

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13) where kR = 2πz 2 e4 /(mc2 β 2 ), Q = q 2 /2m gives the kinetic energy of the secondary electron produced in the collision, | F (E, q) |2 represents the interaction matrix element for longitudinal excitations, and | G(E, q) |2 represents that for transverse excitations [33, 50]. Similar to Fano [19], the cross section diﬀerential in E is divided into four parts. • Small Q part: f (E, K) is approximated by f (E, 0), see Fig. 1, can be found in [53]. 1007/978-3-642-03606-4 2 c Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011 2–12 2 The Interaction of Radiation with Matter • High Q part, corresponding to large energy losses E where the binding energy of the atomic electrons can be neglected.

34), is not shown. 05. For x > 2 mm peak c has disappeared, peak d is the dominant contribution and deﬁnes the most probable energy loss Δp . The buildup for peak e at 440 to 640 eV is the contribution from L-shell collisions. It appears roughly at 250 eV plus Δp . 7 collisions/cm, thus the amplitude of the peak e is roughly proportional to x. The Bethe mean energy loss is 250 eV/mm. 100 2 GeV protons 1 μm Si f [Δ] 80 60 40 20 0 0 50 100 150 Δ [eV] 200 250 300 Fig. 23. 4 for explanation. The Bethe-Fano mean energy loss is Δ = 400 eV.

11. Predominant is the excess of σ(E) over σA (E) for 30 < E(eV ) < 300 resulting in the shift to greater Δ of the FVP function. We see that the AliRoot [62] Monte Carlo calculation does not produce accurate straggling functions. Its attractiveness is that the functions used are analytic. A modiﬁed approach which is just as simple as the current method but will produce more accurate straggling functions consists of • replacing in Fig. 16 the function L[P10] by Σt [Ne] • replacing in Fig. 14 the function given by the dotted line (from Eq.