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By Alexander Daniel Beihammer, Maria G. Parani, Christopher David Schabel (Eds)

Within the politically and militarily advanced global of the medieval jap Mediterranean humans and entities of alternative ethnic, non secular and linguistic backgrounds got here into shut touch at many various degrees.

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A number of Greeks who had served in the lower ranks of the Venetian administration in an unknown capacity, possibly of a military nature, were evacuated to Venice together with their families at the state’s expense when Byzantine forces recovered Constantinople in 1261. The state continued to pay them a salary in Venice. However, most of them failed to integrate within Venetian society and to adapt to the Venetian 26 Jacoby, “The Venetian Presence,” pp. 150–151, 177–178. For Constantinople, see idem, “The Venetian Government,” pp.

Maltezou, ƋƧƴvɝƳ, pp. 155 and 163, pars. 10 and 33 respectively. , p. 207, n. 1, and p. 208. , p. 83. PL 216, col. 227, lib. XIII, ep. 35. 37 The Greeks Nikephoritzes and Aloubardes served as high-ranking secretaries with the title of hypogrammateus in the chancery of Baldwin II. 38 After the Byzantine recovery of Constantinople in 1261 both of them entered the service of Michael VIII Palaiologos.

It is clear, therefore, that the surveyor sent by the podestà to Lampsakos must have been Greek, or he was assisted by a minor Greek ofÀcial acquainted both with the language and Àscal terminology used in the praktikon. In addition, he must have been capable of collecting oral testimonies from the local peasants. 21 Its translation was indispensable to allow Venetian ofÀcials access to its content. 22 Moreover, few Venetian ofÀcials serving in Venice, the ultimate destination of the survey, read Greek.

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