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By Vishwanath Prasad Varma

Buddhism is a topic of soaking up curiosity to pupil of comparative religions, ethics, historical past and social philosophy. Its old foundations were mentioned through Senart, Oldenberg and C.A.F. Rhys Davids. during this e-book there was awarded not just an target and scholarly exposition of the lessons and philosophy of early Buddhism however the Vedic roots of its techniques were validated. The tools of sociology of faith have additionally been undefined. The part entitled Buddhism and the Social Sciences constitutes an unique contribution to wisdom from the pen of an immanent instructor of political philosophy.

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He stressed that the way to the cessation of suffering is the nirodha of avidyii and nirvana is attained by samadhi and prajnii and not merely by sila. Hence along with moral purification, psychological gnosis and meditation are considered the technics of emancipation (vimutti). 2 Gautama did learn some significant processes of meditation from two of his teachers--Alara Kalama and Uddaka Ramaputta. But he claimed to have gone, deeper in that path. Hence, when, on his way to Sarnath from Gaya, Upaka Ajivaka asked him, as to who was his teacher, Buddha said that he had attained supreme enlightenment (bodhi) by his own efforts.

Life, accord mg to the Greeks, could be reahzed on y VIr U d h · 'fi in the perfect polity. But Gau~ama stresse . t ~. s1gn~ ~an~e f arhattii for its own sake. He 1s far more mdlVlduahstJc m ~is attitude than Plato. ~y_iinas. The key concept, however, in the Buddhist way of life is not God-realization or identity with the supra-cosmic brahman but emancipation. There is no doubt that some of the fundamental elements of the contemporary Brahmanical cult and philosophical ideas were subjected to destructive criticism by Gautama Buddha but his personal life of renunciation of the comforts of home life at the early age of twenty-nine shows that in his emotional and cathectic make-up he was a Hindu of Hindus.

For the ancient Indian mind, the celibate or monastic anchorite commanded a special veneration because he had turned his back upon the allurements of the world and had taken a decided step to initiate himself through meditative contemplation into the superior mysteries. Since the time of the Atharraveda we have the picture of the muni dominating the Indian mind. The ]Jg1•eda constantly refers to the power of tapas. Yajnavalkya is the arch-leader of monastics. The teachers who flourished in the seventh and sixth centuries 1 Cf.

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