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In order to keep a surface fairly clean over aperiod of the order of an hour (time for performing an experiment on a "clean" surface) it is therefore necessary to have a vacuum with a residual gas pressure lower than 10- 10 Torr (-IO-8Pa). These are UHV conditions which are necessary for experiments on "clean", well-defined solid/vacuum interfaces, where contamination effects can be neglected. 1. Semiconductor sampie prepared for cleavage by the double-wedge technique. For Si and Ge the cleavage plane is (111); for III-V semiconductors it is (110).

Fractionates. Sputters weil, deposits as the alloy. W Ao,Bo Evaporates rapidly. Alloys with refractory metals. Sputters weil. Alloys with refractory sources and must be evaporated rapidly. Sputters weil. Mo, Ta 304 Ao,Mo Wets all sources and may Ta, Q contaminate vacuum system. Toxic. stainless steel Silicon (Si) 1420 Silicon Dioxide (Si02 ) 1800 Silver (Ag) 961 Tantalum (Ta) 2996 Tellurium (Te) 452 W Thallium (TI) 304 Bo,C Use only small amounts with crucible source. Use external heater. Difficult to evaporate free of SiO.

Scheme of a multiple cleavage set-up. The semiconductor sam pie shaped as a rod with notches cut into the upper side can be shifted forwards to bring the next notch under the cleavage wedge multiple cleavages from one single crystal bar are desirable to enable more than one set of experiments within a single UHV cycle. 2). After termination of the first set of experiments, a new, freshly cleaved surface is prepared by shifting the bar forwards to bring the next notch under the wedge. If there is no need to produce a single-crystal surface with distinct orientation, cleaved surfaces can be obtained much more simply by crushing thin slabs of the material with a magnetically operated hammer in UHV.

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