By Wil Hout
Analyses the poverty relief effectiveness of definite elements of the eu Union's (EU) improvement coverage and indicates ways that to reinforce its effectiveness. This publication specializes in 3 facets of ecu improvement coverage: alternate, agriculture and nutrients defense, and modes of policy-making and implementation.
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Additional info for EU development policy and poverty reduction: enhancing effectiveness
The methods to assess the effects for trade and migration are similar to those for investment: from regional provisions to the volume, price and poverty focus of trade, migration and investment, to poverty via complementary conditions (see te Velde 2006 for more detailed charts). The fourth route relates mainly to non-trade and non-FDI issues in RTAs that may affect poverty, or trade and FDI issues that affect regional integration processes. These issues include: does the RTA have long-run or dynamic effects through competition and scale effects; is the RTA associated with convergence or divergence of income levels and how has this affected the regional integration processes; does the RTA include regional social programmes, does it implement infrastructure programmes at a regional scale, and does it have regional investment funds; are there any signiﬁcant links between an RTA and poverty through migration; what are the links amongst trade, investment and migration effects of RTAs; have negotiations on the RTA included effective representation of poor people?
In this context, the insights of Carter and Barham (1996) are highly relevant. These authors have observed that there has been considerable heterogeneity in the impacts of agro-exports on growth and equity in Latin America, and that small farmers have often been excluded from the beneﬁts of agro-export booms. Basic social and economic inequalities have severely hindered the bulk of the rural poor from being able to take advantage from the beneﬁts of market access agreements. Clearly, therefore, policy instruments of promoting trade have not been ﬁne-tuned to the needs of the poor.
Case studies: Importance of complementary policies and regional public goods The case studies of Bolivia and Tanzania successfully tested the mapping structure set out above, moving beyond the effects at the regional level to poverty effects at the country level. New evidence for Bolivia as documented in Nina and Andersen (2006) shows that regional integration has affected the trade composition of Bolivia, geographically towards more trade with ANDEAN and MERCOSUR, and sectorally from minerals towards vegetable fats, food and beverages.