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G:Desprption time F:Eluent concentration Standarized Pareto Chart for Extraction Recovery of Cadmium (%) E:Eluent volume + - A:pH B:Sorbent amount G:Desprption time D:Ionic strength F:Eluent concentration C:IL amount E:Eluent volume B:Sorbent amount 0 1 2 Standardized effect D:Ionic strength 3 4 C:IL amount 1 chart, representing 2 3 estimated4 effects of parameters obtained from the Figure 6. 05) Pareto the Standardized effect Plackett-Burman screening design for cadmium [14]. Figure 6. 05) Pareto chart, representing the estimated effects of parameters obtained from the Pl screening design for cadmium [14].

65] Hao JC, Song AX, Wang JZ, Chen X, Zhuang WC, Shi F, et al. Self-assembled struc‐ ture in room-temperature ionic liquids. Chem Eur J 2005;11:3936-40. [66] Kimizuka N, Nakashima T. Spontaneous self-assembly of glycolipid bilayer mem‐ branes in sugar-philic ionic liquids and formation of ionogels. Langmuir 2001;17:6759-61. [67] He YY, Lodge TP. A thermoreversible ion gel by triblock copolymer self-assembly in an ionic liquid. Chem Commun 2007;2732-4. [68] He YY, Boswell PG, Buhlmann P, Lodge TP.

Also the results illustrated in Figures 5 and 6 confirm that eluent concentration and desorption time have significant positive effects on extraction recovery of Pb(II) and Cd(II), respectively. And other parameters show no significant effect on the extraction recovery of both elements. Therefore, the Box-Behnken design (BBD) was performed to evaluate the optimum condition of performance of selective IL-FF-D-SPE of Pb(II) and Cd(II) for the three significant parame‐ ters: pH, eluent concentration, and desorption time.

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