Download Reviving Phoenicia: The Search for Identity in Lebanon by Asher Kaufman PDF

By Asher Kaufman

Reviving Phoenicia follows the social, highbrow and political improvement of the Phoenician fantasy of beginning in Lebanon from the center of the 19th century to the tip of the 20 th. Asher Kaufman demonstrates the function performed through the lay, liberal Syrian-Lebanese who resided in Beirut, Alexandria and the US in the direction of the tip of the 19th century within the delivery and dissemination of this fable. Kaufman investigates the an important position Phoenicianism occupied within the formation of higher Lebanon in 1920. He additionally explores the way in which the Jesuit Order and the French experts propagated this fable throughout the mandate years. The e-book additionally analyzes literary writings of other Lebanese who endorsed this fable, and of others who hostile it. ultimately, Reviving Phoenicia presents an summary of Phoenicianism from independence in 1943 to the current, demonstrating that regardless of the final objection to this delusion, a few elements of it entered mainstream Lebanese nationwide narratives. Kaufman's paintings might be important studying for a person attracted to the beginning of recent Lebanon as we all know it today.

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It was a belief shared by most Europeans, lay and clerical alike. 8 European exposure of eastern civilizations almost always resulted in romantic, fantastic attitudes. European travelers had always been attracted to the Orient, but in the 19th century their number increased dramatically, and the character of the journeys changed as well. If previously they embarked on their journeys as private adventurers, then as the 19th century progressed they often came in official expeditionary delegations with a clear agenda of unearthing what they perceived as their own history and tradition.

This is the flag. French colors. Phoenician colors, too. The blue, it is the sea that the Phoenicians introduced, through their vessels, to human history, and which they traversed along the maritime routes that civilized the world; it is also the azure of a new sky, a new horizon: the horizon of peace and heaven of liberty. The white, it is the eternal snow of the mountain; it is also the purity of the principles of justice, faith and loyalty on which the Lebanese have been raised. The red, it is the purple which gave Phoenicia its reputation and its fortune; it is the blood spilled through the centuries by ancestors to safeguard rights and traditions; it is also the struggle to hold on, the sacrifices made to elevate the fatherland to the rank of the most glorious countries.

The mission of the Maronites was to spread Christianity, especially in the non-Christian Middle East. The role of the civilizing mission of Lebanon since antiquity was an important pillar in the construction of the Lebanese national consciousness, but for Hoyek this mission had no secular, non-Christian, denotation. The Maronite Church, parochial in nature, could not preach in favor of the non-Christian, pagan adherence of its ancestors. Even al-Dibs, who wrote extensively on ancient Phoenicia and whose work is indeed impressive in its depth, could not write about the pagan Phoenician ancestry of his flock.

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