By Janice Terry
Millions of greenbacks are spent each year through businesses and detailed curiosity teams trying to impression executive coverage. They paintings backstage, lobbying politicians to symbolize their pursuits. From tobacco businesses, to strength businesses, from anti-abortion campaigners to civil rights campaigners, the record is substantial. And nowhere is their impression extra keenly felt than at the factor of the center East.
Israel is America's key best friend within the center East, and is helping hold U.S. dominance within the sector. This booklet exhibits how pro-Israeli lobbyists and family curiosity teams were highly winning in growing executive and monetary help for Israel. against this, Arab-American teams and Arab governments have had much less luck maintaining their agencies.
Janice J. Terry exhibits how specific curiosity teams paintings, and why convinced lobbying concepts are more desirable than others. She units this in the wider cultural context, exhibiting how the U.S. media -- and most of the people -- view the center East.
To clarify how lobbies paintings, Terry attracts on case reports together with the Sinai accords and Camp David lower than Presidents Ford and Carter, the clash among eco-friendly and Turkish lobbies over Cyprus, and the key crusade opposed to the Arab boycott.
Making use of basic resources, and unpublished fabric from quite a few presidential libraries, it is a attention-grabbing exposé of the function that foyer teams fairly play in identifying U.S. overseas coverage within the heart East. it will likely be of curiosity to scholars of yankee politics and heart East studies.
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Extra resources for U.S. Foreign Policy in the Middle East: The Role of Lobbies and Special Interest Groups
Conversely, policy papers routinely reflect positively on Israel and negatively on Arab states. Recommended reading lists are heavily slanted toward studies favorable to Israel. Summaries on the history of the Arab Israeli conflict likewise lack objectivity. S. media. ”18 With many authors already predisposed to favor Israel, it is not surprising that government biographies on Israeli leaders tend to downplay their involvement in violent or terrorist activities against either the British during the Mandate era or against the Arabs.
A multitude of Jewish American organizations have been extremely active in political and social realms for many decades. These organizations keep the White House and politicians informed of their many activities and programs. S. 22 Presidents regularly appoint liaisons to meet with domestic pressure groups as well as to provide information on their activities and to follow their publications. When organizations hold national conventions or publish materials thought to be of political or international importance, staff members pass on pertinent information, write memos regarding the organizations and, by a variety of other means, communicate directly with the president and others in the White House and government offices.
As will be demonstrated, policies that could be construed as harmful to Israeli interests, or as favoring the Arabs, cause vocal and vociferous opposition from both Democrats and Republicans in Congress. Political retribution soon follows. Presidents are particularly vulnerable to political pressures in election years. Because first term presidents enter office already running for a second term, each must frame his foreign policy during the first four years in office within the constraints of domestic political considerations.