By Shenglai Yang (auth.)
In this ebook, the elemental wisdom serious about petroleum & gasoline improvement engineering, reminiscent of actual and chemical phenomena, actual tactics and the connection among actual elements is roofed. it really is prepared into three Sections. part 1 together with bankruptcy 1-4 is to introduce the houses of fluids (gases, hydrocarbon beverages, and aqueous solutions). part II together with bankruptcy 5-7 is to introduce the porous rock homes of reservoir rocks. part III together with bankruptcy 8-10 is to introduce the mechanism of multiphase fluid movement in porous medium. The ebook is written essentially to serve execs operating within the petroleum engineering box. it might probably even be used as reference e-book for postgraduate and undergraduate scholars in addition for the comparable oil fields in petroleum geology, oil creation engineering, reservoir engineering and adorning oil recovery.
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During this ebook, the elemental wisdom serious about petroleum & fuel improvement engineering, equivalent to actual and chemical phenomena, actual methods and the connection among actual components is roofed. it truly is prepared into three Sections. part 1 together with bankruptcy 1-4 is to introduce the homes of fluids (gases, hydrocarbon beverages, and aqueous solutions).
Written by way of specialists in combustion expertise, this can be a particular and fresh standpoint at the present biofuel dialogue, providing the newest learn during this vital box. The emphasis all through this reference is on functions, business views and economics, concentrating on new sessions of biofuels similar to butanols, levulinates, benzenoids and others.
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The hydrogen sulﬁde usually makes a contribution no more than 5–6 %; however, there are exceptions: The gas from the Lac gas reservoir of France bears a high H2S content of 17 %, and the gas from a Canadian gas reservoir even bears a percentage of more than 20 %. Hydrogen sulﬁde leads to metal instruments corrosion and brings hydrogen embitterment and the following fracturing. Even more serious, once its concentration reaches a safe value (10 mg/m3) in the air, humans will be poisoned and suffocated to death.
3). In engineering practice, the pseudo-critical parameters can also be obtained through Fig. 4, based on the values of speciﬁc gravity which are usually already known. 14) and then refer to Fig. 3 to determine the value of the compressibility Z. If the non-hydrocarbon content of the studied natural gas is comparatively not too high, for example, the N2 content is less than 2 %, the empirical correlations written below, which is also based on the known speciﬁc gravity (γg), can be employed to obtain the approximate values of the pseudo-critical pressure Ppc and the pseudo-critical temperature Tpc.
Heavy-oil reservoir (also called thick-oil reservoir): It is featured by high viscosity and great speciﬁc gravity. 0 and a gas-free oil viscosity of 100–1000 mPa s under reservoir temperature. 10 shows another representative classiﬁcation. The gas reservoirs can be further divided into to subtypes: dry gas reservoir and wet gas reservoir. In actual practice, the dry gas reservoir, also named poor gas reservoir, often refers to gas reservoirs whose production GOR (gas–oil ratio) is greater than 18,000 m3/m3, and the other group whose production GOR is smaller than 18,000 m3/m3 is called wet gas reservoir.